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The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America.
By 2000 BCE, many agrarian village communities had developed throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions.
In the Albian, around 110 mya, South America and Africa began to diverge along the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, giving rise to a landmass of Antarctica and South America.
During the late Eocene, around 35 mya, Antarctica and South America separated and South America became a massive, biologically rich island-continent.
Among the earliest permanent settlements, dated to 4700 BC is the Huaca Prieta site on the coast of Peru, and at 3500 BC the Valdivia culture in Ecuador. Among those groups were the Muisca or "Muysca," and the Tairona, located in present-day Colombia.
The Cañari of Ecuador, Quechua of Peru, and Aymara of Bolivia were the three most important Native peoples who developed societies of sedentary agriculture in South America.Genetic and linguistic evidence has shown that the last wave of migrant peoples settled across the northern tier, and did not reach South America.