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Generally, the ET increases as cost of control increases and decreases as the crop value increases.
Fields should be evaluated regularly to determine pest population levels.
Fewer ETs have been established for non-economical pests, such as sunflower root weevil or sunflower bud moth.
The ET varies significantly among different pest species.
The concept of IPM is based on the fact that many factors interact to influence the abundance of a pest.
Control methods vary in effectiveness, but integration of various population-regulating factors can minimize the number of pests in sunflowers and reduce the cost of managing pest populations without unnecessary crop losses.
However, during any growing season, only a few species may be numerous enough to warrant control measures.
The sunflower insects of major importance in the northern Great Plains have been the sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi Gagné), sunflower beetle (Zygogramma exclamationis (Fabricius)), sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Le Conte)), red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus Le Conte) and the banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham).
An economic threshold (ET) is the level of pest density at which tactics must be applied to prevent an increasing pest population from causing economic losses. The ET has been defined most extensively for economic insect pests.
Producers should examine their operations and minimize pest damage by adopting IPM practices based on the use of economic thresholds (when available) and by carefully combining monitoring and various pest management strategies.